Effects of Large Volcanic Eruptions on Global Summer Climate and East Asian Monsoon Changes during the Last Millennium: Analysis of MPI-ESM Simulations
Journal of Climate
Responses of summer [June-August (JJA)] temperature and precipitation to large volcanic eruptions are analyzed using the millennial simulations of the earth system model developed at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology. The model was driven by up-to-date reconstructions of external forcing, including natural forcing (solar and volcanic) and anthropogenic forcing (land-cover change and greenhouse gases). Cooling anomalies after large volcanic eruptions are seen on a nearly global scale. The
... y global scale. The cooling in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) is stronger than in the Southern Hemisphere (SH), and cooling is stronger over the continents than over the oceans. The precipitation decreases in the tropical and subtropical regions in the first summer after large volcanic eruptions. The cooling, with amplitudes of up to 20.68C, is also seen over eastern China. East Asia is dominated by northerly wind anomalies, and the corresponding summer rainfall exhibits a coherent reduction over the entirety of eastern China. The tropospheric mean temperature anomalies indicate that there is coherent cooling over East Asia and the tropical ocean after large volcanic eruptions. The cooling over the middle-to-high latitudes of East Asia is stronger than over the tropical ocean. This temperature anomaly pattern suggests a reduced land-sea thermal contrast and favors a weaker East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) circulation. Analysis of the radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) suggests that the reduction in shortwave radiation after large volcanic eruptions is nearly twice as large as the reduction in emitted longwave radiation, a net loss of radiative energy that cools the surface and lower troposphere.