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Various methods control the influence of a covariate on a response variable. These methods are analysis of covariance(ANCOVA), RANK ANCOVA, ANOVA of (covariate-adjusted) residuals, and Kruskal-Wallis tests on residuals. Covariate-adjusted residuals are obtained from the overall regression line fit to the entire data set that ignore the treatment levels or factors. It is demonstrated that the methods on covariate-adjusted residuals are only appropriate when the regression lines are parallel anddoi:10.5351/ckss.2012.19.5.721 fatcat:wys4mokpibbt5he4uchxq4imha