Differentiation in the genetic basis of stem trichome development between cultivated tetraploid cotton species
Background: Cotton stem trichomes and seed fibers are each single celled structures formed by protrusions of epidermal cells, and were found sharing the overlapping molecular mechanism . Compared with fibers, cotton stem trichomes are more easily observed, but the molecular mechanisms underlying their development are still poorly understood. Results: In this study, Gossypium hirsutum (Gh ) and G . barbadense ( Gb ) were found to differ greatly in percentages of varieties/accessions with
... ssions with glabrous stems and in trichome density, length, and number per trichopore. Gh varieties normally had long singular and clustered trichomes, while Gb varieties had short clustered trichomes. Genetic mapping using five F2 populations from crosses between glabrous varieties and those with different types of stem trichomes revealed that much variation among stem trichome phenotypes could be accounted for by different combinations of genes/alleles on Chr.06 and Chr.24. The twenty six F1 generations from crosses between varieties with different types of trichomes had varied phenotypes, further suggesting that the trichomes of tetraploid cotton were controlled by different genes/alleles. Compared to modern varieties, a greater proportion of Gh wild accessions were glabrous or had shorter and denser trichomes; whereas a smaller proportion of Gb primitive accessions had glabrous stems. A close correlation between fuzz fiber number and stem trichome density was observed in both Gh and Gb primitive accessions and modern varieties. Conclusion: Based on these findings, we hypothesize that stem trichomes evolved in parallel with seed fibers during the domestication of cultivated tetraploid cotton. In addition, the current results illustrated that stem trichome can be used as a morphological index of fiber quality in cotton conventional breeding.