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A key qualitative requirement for highway traffic models is the ability to replicate a type of traffic jam popularly referred to as a phantom jam, shock wave or stopand-go wave. Despite over 50 years of modelling, the precise mechanisms for the generation and propagation of stop-and-go waves and associated spatiotemporal patterns are in dispute. However, the increasing availability of empirical data sets, such as those collected from MIDAS (motorway incident detection and automatic signallingdoi:10.1098/rsta.2008.0018 pmid:18325873 fatcat:ancxhbdcgfdrhk4lrv36nwgyny