Distribution and Genotyping of Aquatic Acinetobacter baumannii Strains Isolated from the Puzi River and Its Tributaries Near Areas of Livestock Farming
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important health care-associated bacterium and a common multidrug-resistant pathogen. The use of antibiotics in the husbandry industry has raised concerns about drug-resistant A. baumannii strains, which may affect humans. This study aimed to investigate the seasonal distribution of A. baumannii in aquatic environments near areas of livestock farming. The geographic distribution, antibiotic resistance characteristic, and DNA fingerprinting genotype of A. baumannii
... pe of A. baumannii were also studied. The results showed that environmental A. baumannii was prevalent during the summer and autumn. The hotspots for A. baumannii were found at the sampling sites of livestock wastewater channels (21.4%; 3/14) and the tributaries adjacent to livestock farms (15.4%; 2/13). The prevalence of A. baumannii at these locations was significantly higher than those adjacent to the Puzi River. Multidrug-resistant strain of A. baumannii was not found in this study, with only one strain (5%; 1/20) being resistant to tetracycline. Of the isolates that were obtained, 10% (2/20) and 20% (4/20) were found to be intermediately resistant to tetracycline and sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, respectively. The genotyping patterns and clustering analysis indicated that enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) differentiated A. baumannii strains effectively. There were two major clusters that could then be subtyped into 20 A. baumannii strains with 15 profiles. The A. baumannii strains that were isolated from upstream of the Puzi River and livestock wastewater channels were composed of Cluster I. Cluster II only contained isolates from downstream of the Puzi River area. Furthermore, isolates from adjacent sites were shown to have identical profiles (100%). These results suggest that A. baumannii may have spread through free-flowing water in this study. Therefore, we propose that livestock wastewater is one of the sources that contribute to A. baumannii pollution in water bodies. In summary, continuous monitoring of antibiotic pollution in livestock wastewater is required.