Coeducational Methodology Used by Physical Education Teachers and Students' Perception of It
In physical education (PE), the methodology used to develop coeducation must consider the tastes and preferences of students. The purpose of this work was to analyze how teachers work with different aspects of PE classes and how their work is perceived by students. Methods: The sample was formed of 176 teachers and 1136 secondary school students. The research design was descriptive. The instruments used were the Questionnaire of Coeducational Aspects in Physical Education for teachers and the
... teachers and the Questionnaire of Perception of Equality and Discrimination in Physical Education for Students. Results: The different statistical analyses showed significant differences in how male and female teachers assigned responsibility to the students. With regard to the students, significant differences were found between boys and girls in their opinions of how their teachers apply the same rules to all the students. Conclusions: Differences exist between male and female teachers in regard to control of the area used for motor activity. With regard to the students, girls perceive to a greater extent than their male counterparts that the activities in PE classes promote equality in the improvement of their capacities. stereotyping are part of teachers' own experiences in both PE and sport participation in school and their education as PE student teachers  . The influence of teachers on students has previously been studied in Spain by Castillo and Corral  and Castillo, Romero, González and Campos  and in other countries by Chen and Rao  and, Lentillon, Cogérino and Kaestner  . The methodology used by teachers to work on coeducation must take into account the tastes and preferences of students, not only from the point of view of gender but also according to their individual preferences, as pointed out by Álvarez and Costa  . It is for this reason that the present study considers those factors that have an effect on the gender stereotypes that may be present in PE. Those factors have been studied focusing on structural aspects of PE classes such as content, activities, use of space, student grouping, materials, evaluation, feedback and language. They have been studied by Spanish authors [8, 13,    , European authors  and American authors [20, 21] . The importance of analyzing such aspects is highlighted by the conclusions drawn by the studies of Rebollo, García-Pérez, Piedra and Vega  , who stated that the methodological aspects applied by teachers are lacking in coeducational perspective. In continuation, the roles of the teaching staff and the student body are analyzed in relation to the different variables that are the object of this study. The first variable is the activities that are developed in PE classes. However, given the importance that the activities proposed by PE teaching staff in their classes , they deserve special analysis. There exist studies focusing on the role of the student from a coeducational perspective. Against this background Kirk and Oliver  indicate that boys dominated co-ed classes and that perspectives on the gender appropriateness of activities remain in place. It is because of this that Mckenzie et al.  indicate that changes may be needed for girls, such as including activities more preferred by girls. In respect to the educators, female teachers practice slightly different teaching styles, with women engaging with girls in more interpersonal ways, in contrast to male teachers' more direct instructional styles  . We understand the use of motor space as what is used during participation in a task is an important variable. Therefore, we focus our attention on each gender's use of the motor space. Thus, as Cantó and Ruiz  indicate, in the space used for the development of motor behaviors, different processes of socialization are established in addition to the occupation and use of the space in relation to sexual stereotypes. Additionally, Colwell  indicates that separating the students in the activities area can be considered discrimination. An alternative to these problems is suggested by Moreno, Alonso and Martínez-Galindo , who suggest as a solution to different motor space problems the use of space rotation. Forming of groups is an aspect of great important to education equality as integration in a group is essential to the socialization of an individual and therefore to the construction of gender equality. In these groups roles, stereotypes and attitudes are established, developing the student body image and thus their self-concept  . There are few works that relate the attitudinal development of the students to the structure of the groups in relation to gender. In the Spanish context, Torres  demonstrates that activities in which the forming of groups is mixed, male students just as much as female students opposed being partnered with a classmate of the opposite sex, a trend accentuated among immigrant students. Lastly, it is indicated that forming of groups spontaneously results in groups of the same sex, reflecting reluctant attitudes toward mixed groups where the male "aggression" becomes "sexual aggression" and the girls are exposed to comparative and degenerative mocking looks  . Another variable analyzed is material. There exist materials whose use are linked to one sex or another, for example dumbbells in the case of boys and rhythmic gymnastics clubs in the case of girls  . Ariel  indicates that the males are, in the majority of the cases, those who seek out the materials (balls, cones, ropes . . . ) and grab and manipulate them even before the teacher takes roll. In contrast, there have not been similar actions observed in the females. Textbooks are a part of the material that impact gender equality in the transmission of sexist stereotypes. "Games and Sports" section, more attention is given to team sports, which are traditionally associated with the male gender than individual artistic sports  .