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Viruses and their hosts since the dawn of time have been battling for supremacy. In recent years, the 'Interferon Gateway' encompassing interferon-alpha and -beta (IFN-a/b) expression, signalling and antiviral responses, has been uncovered. IFN-a/b are cytokines that coordinate the innate and adaptive immune responses to eliminate virus infections from the host. Interferon Stimulated Gene (ISG) products, such as protein kinase R, can prevent the translation of viral and cellular mRNAs to limitdoi:10.1093/biohorizons/hzp014 fatcat:fjdl5yeyb5h7haktnssuesh7pq