EXTRACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF SAPROTROPHIC MUSHROOMS LENTINULA EDODES AND PHOLIOTA SQUARROSA. HEAVY METAL CONTENT
chemistry of plant raw material
The article is devoted to comparing the chemical composition of extractive substances of the legs and caps of two types of saprotrophic fungi Lentinula edodes and Pholiota squarrosa. The content of metals: mercury, cadmium and iron in different parts of the mushrooms is compared in the article. The amount of substances recovered by various solvents is determined. The amount of ester-soluble substances is more found in caps than in stems. Water soluble substances are more extracted from P.
... acted from P. squarrosa. Isopropyl alcohol extracts more substances from shiitake. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of neutral compounds, acids, and compounds of isopropanol extract was carried out by chromatography-mass spectrometry. Isopropyl alcohol mainly extracts disaccharides and sugar alcohols. It was revealed that the main sugar alcohols of L. edodes are mannitol and ribitol. Sugar alcohols content differs in different parts. Ribitol predominates in the stems. Shiitake caps contain mannitol and ribitol in equal amounts. Sugar alcohols are present in trace amounts in P. squarrosa, but trehalose (disaccharide) is the main component of the alcoholic extract. The compositions of fatty acids, sterols, carbohydrates and sugar alcohols in various parts of mushrooms were determined. Ergosterol predominates among sterols, while linoleic acid prevails among acids. Caps have a more diverse sterol composition. Both types of fungi contain polysaccharides consisting of glucose residues. It grows in P. squarrosa; mercury and cadmium accumulate in vivo. Wood-based shiitake grown in a greenhouse contains almost no mercury and cadmium, but contains iron. The amount of cadmium and mercury in the caps is greater than the stems. Metals are not extracted with isopropyl alcohol and are practically not extracted with hot water.