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In this paper, we address the problem of detecting and tracking targets with a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by exploiting hybrid differential evolution (HDE) in the particle filter track-before-detect (PF-TBD) context. Firstly, we introduce the Bayesian PF-TBD method and its weaknesses. Secondly, the HDE algorithm is regarded as a novel particle updating strategy, which is proposed to optimize the performance of the PF-TBD algorithm. Thirdly, we combine the systematic resampling approach todoi:10.3390/a8040965 fatcat:e7rifsxm55enfhdikzvrtrsmce