Inflammatory Mediators Across the Spectrum of Ankle-Brachial Index
Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis
Aim: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a manifestation of atherosclerosis with poor prognosis. It is generally complicated by vascular calcification, which is located either in the intima as patchy infiltrates; or circumferentially in the media, also known as medial arterial calcification (MAC). Obstructive PAD is reflected by low anklebrachial index (ABI ≤ 0.9), whereas MAC is revealed by high ABI (ABI 1.4). Considering the increase in cardiovascular mortality at both ends of the ABI
... of the ABI spectrum, this study aimed to explore the underlying pathology through cytokines with established prognostic significance; namely pentraxin-3(PTX3), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), copeptin, soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1), NT-proBNP, and neopterin. Methods: We categorized 180 patients with previous multivessel coronary artery bypass grafting surgery into three groups based on their ABI measurements; 60 patients with ABI ≤ 0.9, 60 patients with ABI within 0.91 and 1.4 (normal ABI), and 60 patients with ABI 1.4 constituted the "PAD," "normal," "MAC" groups, respectively. The circulating levels of the biochemical markers were determined. Results: In the PAD group, the cytokine levels with predominantly proatherogenic actions such as PTX3, hsCRP, copeptin, and sTREM-1 were increased and these cytokine levels declined as the ABI increased. In the MAC group, the cytokine concentrations with pleiotropic actions such as NT-proBNP and neopterin increased and; NT-proBNP and neopterin concentrations decreased as ABI decreased. The linear regression analysis revealed that neopterin ( 0.72), PTX3 ( 0.32), and copeptin ( 0.48) were independent predictors of ABI. Conclusions: These findings suggest that different inflammatory pathways influence the pathology at the opposing ends of the ABI spectrum. Consequently, we suggest that PTX3, copeptin, and neopterin are promising biomarkers for future research.