Diagnosis and Transvascular Embolization for Ruptured Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations: Outcomes from a 12 Years' Retrospective Study
Background Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) are rare, and the life-threatening hemorrhagic complications, including hemoptysis and hemothorax, are extremely uncommon. However, the management of large series of ruptured PAVMs has not been described in recent years. Methods We retrospectively reviewed patients who developed ruptured PAVMs between January 2008 and December 2019. We assessed the clinical and imaging data to summarize the incidence and characteristics of ruptured PAVMs,
... of ruptured PAVMs, and outcomes following embolization with coils or plugs. A paired-sample t-test analysis, Kaplan–Meier method and the simple linear regression were accessed, as appropriate.Results Eighteen (5.49%) of 328 patients diagnosed with PAVMs developed hemorrhagic complications. Twelve of these 18 patients were clinically diagnosed with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) (incidence, 66.67%). Eleven of 18 patients were female. Eight of the 11 females were diagnosed with HHT. Twenty-eight lesions were detected, and the simple type was more common (82.14%) than the complex type. 89.29% of lesions were located in the peripheral lung. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) showed indirect signs to predict the ruptured PAVMs in cases of hemothorax. Technical success of embolotherapy was achieved in all cases. Two days after treatment, pulmonary function was significantly improved and bleeding was controlled (P<0.05), and no patients showed recanalization of PAVMs. Two patients in the hemoptysis group died of other reasons during follow-up and the mean follow-up time was 3.22±2.52 years (range, 7 months to 10 years). The hemorrhage volume was linearly associated with the diameter of the afferent arteries in the ruptured lesions.Conclusions CTA was able to diagnose ruptured PAVMs, and embolotherapy led to successful resolution of symptoms in all 18 patients who had ruptured PAVMs. Ruptured PAVMs must be considered when managing patients with hemothorax or hemoptysis, especially female patients with HHT.