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There is little information on atypical mycobacterium and human T lymphothropic virus Type I (HTLV-I) co-infection. We present the first case of pulmonary M. simiae infection in co-infection with HTLV-1, confirmed by ELISA antibody test and Western Blot. We discuss the clinical characteristics and laboratory tests of the patient and presumptive immunological relation. We propose that in patients with the HTLV infection and pulmonary symptoms and signs compatible with tuberculosis, evaluation for atypical mycobacteriosis may be recommendable.doi:10.4081/monaldi.2006.573 pmid:16913582 fatcat:uok7gnagxvbojpghza4pmrcxfy