Clinical Presentations and Outcomes in Transplant Patients With COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Introduction: Transplant patients are a vulnerable group due to their immunocompromised status. Understanding how COVID-19 can present in this group is clinically important. Therefore, we conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on clinical features and management of transplant patients with COVID-19.Methods: Five databases were searched in May 2020 to include all relevant studies reporting clinical features or outcomes of COVID-19 infection in transplant patients. Data on clinical
... on clinical presentation, outcomes, lab values, imaging, and drug regimen were extracted. CMA software was used for meta-analysis. Protocol was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42020189458).Results: A total of 49 studies were finally included for analysis. Patients mainly complained from fever with event rate 74.40 % (95% CI= 69.4-78.8), cough 61.10% (95% CI= 55.8-66), and dyspnea 46.60% (95% CI= 69.4-78.8). Blood urea nitrogen 78.90% (95% CI= 54.7-92), ESR 78.10% (95% CI=52.3-92.1), and D-dimer 74.10% (95 % CI= 53-87.9) were the most elevated observed laboratory values. Ground glass opacities (GGO) were observed with event rate 68.10% (95% CI= 20.4-94.9). For treatment, immunosuppressants were used in 88.80% (95% CI= 77.6-94.8) of patients, followed by antibiotics and antiviral drugs 68.40% (95% CI= 52.4-80.9), 66.80% (95% CI = 45-83.2), respectively. Mechanical ventilation was used in 26.30% (95% CI=21-32.4) patients while 33.7% (95% CI= 20.7-49.9) intubated. Rejection occurred in 11% (95% CI= 4.4-25) of the patients. Finally, 18.20% (95% CI= 12.6-25.7) died. Conclusion: Clinical characteristics and management in transplant COVID patients suggest the similar course in non-transplant. Fever, cough, dyspnoea, elevated blood urea nitrogen level, elevated CRP, elevated d-dimer, GGO, and consolidation were found to be the most frequent abnormalities. No direct, comparative analysis with non-transplant COVID population limited our results; however, numerous studies that examined the infected general population found similar, less augmented findings. Most of the included sample were kidney transplant patients; therefore, more studies are needed to address other types of COVID-19 infected transplant patients.