The Changing Epidemiology of Urolithiasis in Pediatric Patients

Judy N. Chen Laura Malaga
2014 Journal of Nephrology & Therapeutics  
The etiology of kidney stones is divided in three broad categories: (i) Metabolic abnormalities that lead to excessive urinary excretion of solutes those are susceptible to crystallization or reduced excretion of inhibitors of crystallization (ii) Anatomic defects that cause disturbances in voiding or urinary stasis (iii) Idiopathic. The laboratory assessment has focused on 24-hour urine collections to measure excretion of calcium, oxalate, citrate, cystine, uric acid, magnesium, and
more » ... selective blood tests, and imaging studies to determine renal structure and function.
doi:10.4172/2161-0959.s11-006 fatcat:pfxown3pwjf23ovjdoqvwmgyqa