ALBA-R: Load-Balancing Geographic Routing Around Connectivity Holes in Wireless Sensor Networks

Chiara Petrioli, Michele Nati, Paolo Casari, Michele Zorzi, Stefano Basagni
2014 IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems  
This paper presents ALBA-R, a protocol for convergecasting in wireless sensor networks. ALBA-R features the cross-layer integration of geographic routing with contention-based MAC for relay selection and load balancing (ALBA), as well as a mechanism to detect and route around connectivity holes (Rainbow). ALBA and Rainbow (ALBA-R) together solve the problem of routing around a dead end without overhead-intensive techniques such as graph planarization and face routing. The protocol is localized
more » ... nd distributed, and adapts efficiently to varying traffic and node deployments. Through extensive ns2-based simulations, we show that ALBA-R significantly outperforms other convergecasting protocols and solutions for dealing with connectivity holes, especially in critical traffic conditions and low-density networks. The performance of ALBA-R is also evaluated through experiments in an outdoor testbed of TinyOS motes. Our results show that ALBA-R is an energy-efficient protocol that achieves remarkable performance in terms of packet delivery ratio and end-to-end latency in different scenarios, thus being suitable for real network deployments.
doi:10.1109/tpds.2013.60 fatcat:5o4777jpnvfl7ctjwobp6gpnya