Extrusion Processing of Rapeseed Press Cake-Starch Blends: Effect of Starch Type and Treatment Temperature on Protein, Fiber and Starch Solubility
For the valorization of oilseed press cakes into food products, extrusion can be used. A common way of applying the protein- and fiber-rich press cakes in directly expanded products is the combination thereof with starch, since starch gives a favourable texture, which correlates directly to expansion. To control product properties like expansion of protein and fiber-rich extruded products, the underlying physicochemical changes of proteins, fibers and starch due to thermomechanical input need
... anical input need to be comprehensively described. In this study, rapeseed press cake (RPC) was extruded and treated under defined thermomechanical conditions in a closed-cavity rheometer, pure and in combination with four starches. The impact of starch type (potato PS, waxy potato WPS, maize MS, high-amylose maize HAMS) and temperature (20/25, 80, 100, 120, 140 °C) on protein solubility, starch gelatinization (Dgel), starch hydrolysis (SH) and fiber solubility of the blends was evaluated. The extrusion process conditions were significantly affected by the starch type. In the extruded blends, the starch type had a significant impact on the protein solubility which decreased with increasing barrel temperature. Increasing barrel temperatures significantly increased the amount of soluble fiber fractions in the blends. At defined thermomechanical conditions, the starch type showed no significant impact on the protein solubility of the blends. Therefore, the observed effects of starch type on the protein solubility of extruded blends could be attributed to the indistinct process conditions due to differences in the rheological properties of the starches rather than to molecular interactions of the starches with the rapeseed proteins in the blends.