Biological Systems Approach to Developing Mealiness-free Peach and Nectarine Fruit [report]

Carlos Crisosto, Susan Lurie, Haya Friedman, Ebenezer Ogundiwin, Cameron Peace, George Manganaris
2007 unpublished
Peach and nectarine production worldwide is increasing; however consumption is flat or declining because of the inconsistent eating quality experienced by consumers. The main factor for this inconsistent quality is mealiness or woolliness, a form of chilling injury that develops following shipping periods in the global fruit market today. Our research groups have devised various postharvest methods to prolong storage life, including controlled atmosphere and delayed storage; however, these
more » ... ments only delay mealiness. Mealiness texture results from disruption of the normal ripening process involving disassembly of cell wall material, and creates a soft fruit texture that is dry and grainy instead of juicy and smooth. Solving this problem is a prerequisite for increasing the demand for fresh peach and nectarine. Two approaches were used to reveal genes and their associated biochemical processes that can confer resistance to mealiness or wooliness. At the Volcani Center, Israel, a nectarine cultivar and the peach cultivar (isogenetic materials) from which the nectarine cultivar spontaneously arose, and at the Kearney Agricultural Center of UC Davis, USA, a peach population that segregates for quantitative resistance to mealiness was used for dissecting the genetic components of mealiness development. During our project we have conducted research integrating the information from phenotypic, biochemical and gene expression studies, proposed possible candidate genes and SNPs-QTLs mapping that are involved in reducing peach mealiness susceptibility. Numerous genes related to ethylene biosynthesis and its signal transduction, cell wall structure and metabolism, stress response, different transcription factor families were detected as being differentially accumulated in the cold-treated samples of these sensitive and less sensitive genotypes. The ability to produce ethylene and keep active genes involved in ethylene signaling, GTP-binding protein, EIN-3 binding protein and an ethylene receptor and activation of ethyleneresponsive fruit ripening genes during cold storage provided greater resistance to CI. Interestingly, in the functional category of genes differentially expressed at harvest, less chilling sensitive cultivar had more genes in categories related to antioxidant and heat sock proteins/chaperones that may help fruit to adapt to low temperature stress. The specific objectives of the proposed research were to: characterize the phenotypes and cell wall components of the two resistant systems in response to mealiness- inducing conditions; identify commonalities and specific differences in cell wall proteins and the transcriptome that are associated with low mealiness incidence; integrate the information from phenotypic, biochemical, and gene expression studies to identify candidate genes that are involved in reducing mealiness susceptibility; locate these genes in the Prunus genome; and associate the genes with genomic regions conferring quantitative genetic variation for mealiness resistance. By doing this we will locate genetic markers for mealiness development, essential tools for selection of mealiness resistant peach lines with improved fruit storability and quality. In our research, QTLs have been located in our peach SNPs map, and proposed candidate genes obtained from the integrated result of phenotypic, biochemical and gene expression analysis are being identified in our QTLs as an approach searching for consistent assistant markers for peach breeding programs.
doi:10.32747/2007.7592650.bard fatcat:56g3guom5nc3nhaqodeguykpye