Convectively Coupled Equatorial Waves. Part III: Synthesis Structures and Their Forcing and Evolution
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences
Building on Parts I and II of this study, the structures of eastward-and westward-moving convectively coupled equatorial waves are examined through synthesis of projections onto standard equatorial wave horizontal structures. The interaction between these equatorial wave components and their evolution are investigated. It is shown that the total eastward-moving fields and their coupling with equatorial convection closely resemble the standard Kelvin wave in the lower troposphere, with
... d convection in phase with anomalous westerlies in the Eastern Hemisphere (EH) and with anomalous convergence in the Western Hemisphere (WH). However, in the upper troposphere, the total fields show a mixture of the Kelvin wave and higher (n ϭ 0 and 1) wave structures, with strong meridional wind and its divergence. The equatorial total fields show what may be described as a modified first internal Kelvin wave vertical structure in the EH, with a tilt in the vertical and a third peak in the midtroposphere. There is evidence that the EH midtropospheric Kelvin wave is closely associated with SH extratropical eastward-moving wave activity, the vertical velocity associated with the wave activity stretching into the equatorial region in the mid-upper troposphere. The midtropospheric zonal wind and geopotential height show a pattern that may be associated with a forced wave. The westward-moving fields associated with off-equatorial convection show very different behaviors between the EH midsummer and the WH transition seasons. In the EH midsummer, the total fields have a baroclinic structure, with the off-equatorial convection in phase with relatively warm air, suggesting convective forcing of the dynamical fields. The total structures exhibit a mixture of the n ϭ 0, 1 components, with the former dominating to the east of convection and the latter to the west of convection. The n ϭ 0 component is found to be closely connected to the lower-level n ϭ 1 Rossby (R1) wave that appears earlier and seems to provide organization for the convection, which in turn forces the n ϭ 0 wave. In the WH transition season the total fields have a barotropic structure and are dominated by the R1 wave. There is evidence that this barotropic R1 wave, as well as the associated tropical convection, is forced by the NH upper-tropospheric extratropical Rossby wave activity. In the EH, westward-moving lower-level wind structures associated with equatorial convection resemble the R1 wave, with equatorial westerlies in phase with the intensified convection. However, westward-moving n ϭ Ϫ1 and n ϭ 0 structures are also involved.