Duck virus enteritis (duck plague) – a comprehensive update
Duck virus enteritis (DVE), also called duck plague, is one of the major contagious and fatal diseases of ducks, geese and swan. It is caused by duck enteritis virus (DEV)/Anatid herpesvirus-1 of the genus Mardivirus, family Herpesviridae, and subfamily Alpha-herpesvirinae. Of note, DVE has worldwide distribution, wherein migratory waterfowl plays a crucial role in its transmission within and between continents. Furthermore, horizontal and/ or vertical transmission plays a significant role in
... gnificant role in disease spread through oral-fecal discharges. Either of sexes from varying age groups of ducks is vulnerable to DVE. The disease is characterized by sudden death, vascular damage and subsequent internal hemorrhage, lesions in lymphoid organs, digestive mucosal eruptions, severe diarrhea and degenerative lesions in parenchymatous organs. Huge economic losses are connected with acute nature of the disease, increased morbidity and mortality (5%-100%), condemnations of carcasses, decreased egg production and hatchability. Although clinical manifestations and histopathology can provide preliminary diagnosis, the confirmatory diagnosis involves virus isolation and detection using serological and molecular tests. For prophylaxis, both live-attenuated and killed vaccines are being used in broiler and breeder ducks above 2 weeks of age. Since DEV is capable of becoming latent as well as shed intermittently, recombinant subunit and DNA vaccines either alone or in combination (polyvalent) are being targeted for its benign prevention. This review describes DEV, epidemiology, transmission, the disease (DVE), pathogenesis, and advances in diagnosis, vaccination and antiviral agents/therapies along with appropriate prevention and control strategies.