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We tested whether surprise elicits similar physiological changes as those associated with orienting and freezing after threat, as surprise also involves a state of interruption and attention for effective action. Moreover, because surprise is primarily driven by the unexpectedness of an event, initial physiological responses were predicted to be similar for positive, neutral, and negative surprises. Results of repetition-change studies (4 + 1 in Supplemental Materials) showed that surprisedoi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2021.108174 pmid:34453984 fatcat:2vn2iu6w2bbxtdn3twq2xou3pe