1887 Transactions of the Philological Society  
1886. The Rev. Prof. SAYCE, Prezident, in the Chair. The PEEZIDENT red two papers: I. On the Origin of the Augment in the Indo-European Verb. After revewing the theories that hav been put forward to acount for the origin of the augment, the Prezident pointed out that its pozession by sum of the Indo-European languages and not by others indicated the existense of paralel forms in the parent: speech, sum with and sum without the prefix. Recent reserch has shown that the primitiv vowl of the
more » ... t, like that of the reduplicated syllabl, was 1. The reduplicated syllabl of stems beginning with a vow1 was therefor necessarily 6, and that the reduplicated syllabl was not conhed to the perfect, is proved by the reduplicated preznts and aorists. The theory was propounded that the reduplicated syllabl of stems beginning with a vowl was extended by analogy to stems beginning with a consonant, imperfects or aorist8 being thus distinguisht from perfects, just as a difrense of vowl was uzed in Greek to distinguish the preznt didmi from the perfect didda. The augment was, consequently, originaly the reduplicated syllabl of the imperfects or aorists of stems beginning with a vowl. I n the discussion Mr. WIIITLEY STOKES said that Prof. Sayce's hypothesis seemd open to serious objection. In the first place the number of roots beginning with a vowl was much smaller than of thoze beginning with a consonant, and it was unlikely that the many shoud hav conformd to the analogy of the few. Secondly, the hypothesis did not acount for the Greek augments a and i. The first was found in the Homeric forms &o (from rt-aaXTo) and ai-ptX8aXdsauau. It was possibly also in the Hesychian d-/+axEu, ~-& L~P E u , and d-ulkaeE. The i-augment was found in the Homeric + -B L~P E U (9. 49!)) and the post-Homeric j-po~+,p, ~-~v u + T Y , I j -p X X o u . It miht possibly be the aame aa the &-augment, found in nine VB&c forms, namely, d n q , dvar, atpi, no. 47. .. PHILOLOQICAL SOCIETY'S PROCEEDINGS. ciupak, cividhyat, ciyunak, ciyukta, cirinak, ar6ik (Whitney, $ 5 8 5 ) . Thirdly, fourthly, and fifthly, the hypothesis did not acount for the dubl augment, for the arbitrary omission of the augment in Homer, and for the accentuation of compounds like m p -G u x o v . 11. The PREZIDENT'S second paper was on the origin of the caracteristic r of the passiv in the Italic and Keltic languages. This r, he said, coud not be the s of the reflexiv pronoun sE, as was formerly supozed, sinse the r was found in Oscan and in Old Irish, where primitiv s never became r. Moreover, the long vowel of SE coud not hav disapeard. Following Bezzenberger, Bugge and other scolars, Prof. Sayce identified this r with an r which is ... 19, 1886.--&~ WHITLEY STOKES. 111 found sporadicaly in Greek, ;land and Samskrt, as a suffix to verbal stems. In theze languages it was not a sign of the passiv j but, as a later development, it was Epecialy aplied to this use in Latin and Keltic. Prof. Sayce offerd the following theory to acount for the fact that in Latin and Keltic this r was not joind to the verbal stem, but was placed aftei-the personal terminativs. In the second person singular of the preznt and imperativ, as in leg+eri+e or le,q+er+e, the passiv SUEX, which Prof. Sayoe believd to be er, imediately followd the stem. This pozition woud, acording to his theory, be the primitiv one. By comparing the activ form leg+e with the passiv Zeg+er+e, f?peakers of Latin and Keltic had been led to analyze the passiv wrongly as Zege+re, and to regard re as a suffix added on t o the activ forms as a mark of the passiv. It was shown that the terminations of Zegitur, legiinur, Zeguntur, pFesupoze that the r was originaly sonant in theze forms, from which we must conclude that the final syllabl of amare had becum sonant in pronunciation after a pr3ceding consonant. Legor would hav been formd on the analogy of Zegitur. The fact that the r of legitzw, etc., was originaly ssnant, dolt the final deth-blow to the theory which saw in the r of the Latin passiv the reflexiv pronoun. NOY. Mr. STOKES mentiond the yew that the passiv r was derived from the root T, to go, and I-eferd to the formation of the passiv in Samskrt (the accented yd elms) and Bangili. Dr. PEILE, while admitting the forse of the argument from the ocurrense of the passiv r in Keltic, found a difficulty in setting aside the strong rezemblansc: between the Greek ldgeso, Zigesai, and the paralel forms in Latin. Friday, November 19, 1886. HENRY BRADLEY, Esq., in the Chair. Mr. WHITLEY STOKES red a paper entitled ' Notes of a Filological Tour.' He first went to P d s and colated Prof. Loth's edition of the twenty-six Old-Gaelic glosses on the Eutychius-fragments in the Bibliothkque Nationale, and found that Loth had not only fidd t o decifer elevn of theze glosses, but publisht the following misreadings : PROF. LOTH. CODEX. menibligim meinbligim (gl. scato) deb . . . er . . . lemnith? Cabast . . . lerrith cabnltith 1. lemnith temnigtith demniguth (gl. munimen) sortvim fortugim (gl. operio) The glossator himself is sumtimes at fault. cleben 1. lemnith ( g l . praeses) Loth also givs derigtith as the gloss on ' desses.' It realy glosses ' scaIprum.' He confounds, for instanse, opperior (Irish inneuth) with cperio (Irish fortugim), and he mistakes o p n o (I cater) for opsosdno (I interrupt iv PEUOLOGICAL SOCIETY'S PROCEEDINGS. by sound, Irish fogrigim, a denominativ from fogur, sound). The cheef rezult of a new colation of the Old-Breton glosses at Orl6ans is to establish the genral accuracy of the late Henry Bradshaw's readings,*and to relegate to the limbo of verba nihili Prof. Loth's deric (the Latin clericus misred), ercolim, tinsot,. etc. The inscription begining "L. Cornelius magnus Atepomtiri filius," etc., prezervd in the Orl6ans Muzeum, has been carefuly studied by LBon Renier in the Revw wchkologipue for 1865. For ' Genabensium' he reads ' C&abensium,' with initial c and an apex over the following e. The reading givn in the Academy for September, 1886, p. 210, col. 2, shoud be corected acordingly. Mr. Stokes also said that ther wer at least four Cuneiform inscriptions in this Muxeum, of which one, on a tessera of baked clay, had been thus tranzlated by MM. Lenormant and Longperier : " Nasitin quam acquisivit Nabu-kinari anno XII. Marduk-habal-idin regis Babilu," where the king named was the Merodach Baladan who in the year 709 B.C. sent ambassadors to Hezekiah to congratulate him on his recuvery. Nr. Stokes hoped that Prof. Sayce woud vizit Orl6ans to copy theze inscriptions. The explanation given in the Academy for October 2, 1886, p. 227, of the opus maceriale in the copy of AdamnBn's Jt$e of Columba prezervd at Schafiausen, was confirmd by a Gaelic gloss on 'trulla,' recently found in the Vatican Library, and publisht by Prof. Zimmer: liag iern bis oc denam macre (a spoon of iron, which is uzed in bilding a maceria). The names of Boniface's fellow-martyrs found in the St. Gallen Martyrology wer interesting. Eoban had been quoted by Forstemarm (Altdeutschee Namenbuch, vol. i. p. 392) from other MSS. So Valthere, Hethelhera (= Aethelhere), Scirbalde, Bosun, Hamunde, Vaccwe, Gund-uuncre, Ille-here, Hathu-uulfe, seemd oblique cases of Scirbald, Bosa, Ba[i]mund, Vaccar (Forstemann's Taccar), Gund-c;acar, Illeher, Hathuwulf. Yr. Stokes then. explaind the five Old-Breton glosses on Vergil which he discwerd at Berne : strum (gl. copia) is=Irish sruaim (stream), Greek ++z; forcas (gl. figere) is, perhaps, a loan from an Old-French *forchaaser (foris-captiare) ; lea-ca (gl. carke) is a compound of les=cornish lea, Welsh Jlys (herb), Irish lus, and ca=Latin carex, from %asex; heith (gl. praeterea) is from kp-t, where hep is=Latin secus, and t the remains of a pronoun meaning ea. Lastly, kostse .i. intertinxerat (gl. discreverat) is the 3rd sg. 2nd p. pres. of a verb cognate with Irish brot (goad), the Samskrt bhrshti (point), the Old-English brord (goad), the Old-Norse broddr (point), and the Latin fastigium, if this be, as sum filologists suppose, for *fwstigium. The corupt Gaelic glosses in the Berne MS. 258-brematin (gl. scinifes, i.e. G K W~T G V ) , bolaeh (gl. impetiginem), and polien, foilem (gl. fulicam, fu1ica)-wer explaind as standing respectivly for bremnta (Saltair na Ram, 3934), bolgach, and foilem-Welsh gwylan, Breton goelann, whense the French gogland, English gull. No. 2324-40. The contents-all in the handwriting of Mich61 O'C16righar chiefly twenty-eiht Irish lives of Irish saints. Of theze M i . Rindon's ' Vita S. Creunntae Virginis ' is realy a life of 5. Cranatan, and his 'Vita S. Molingi' is a life of S. Molacca. The liht that theze Lives throw on genealogy, topografy, and social history has oftn been recognized. They ar also admitted to be of filological value, and in this codex many of the obsolete words in the Lives of Patrick, Brigit, Finnchu of Bri Gobann, and Coimin Fota ar glost. But the poetic beauty of the legends which theze Lives contain has not been so freely acknowledgd. It has even led to vulgar travesty. Contrast with Moore's 'S. Senanus and the Lady' the reverence, pathos, and imaghativ power of the legend of which the following is a literal version : " Canair the Pious, a holy maidn of the Benntraige of the south of Ireland, betook herself to a hermitage in her own territory. There, one niht, after nocturns, she was praying, when all the churches of Ireland apeard t o her. And it seemd that a tower of fire roze up to hevn from each of the churches ; but the greatest of the towers, and the straihtest towards hevn, was that which roze from Inis-Cathaigh,' i:now Scattery Island, in the Shannon, where S. Sentin had bilt his church). ' 'Fair is yon cel,' she saith. 'Thither wil I go, that my reaurection may be near it.' Straihtway on she went, without guidance save the tower of lire, which she beheld ablaze without ceasing day and niht befor her, ti1 she came thither. Now, when she had reacht the shor of Luimnech, she crost the sea with dry feet as if she wer on smooth land til she came to Inis-Cathaigh. Now, Sentin knew that thing, and he went to the harbor t o meet her, and he gave her welcum. ' ' Yea, I have cum,' sait'h Canair. ' 'Go,' saith Senirn, 'to thy sister who dwels in yon iland in the east, that thou mayest hav gesting therin.' ' ' Not for that hav we cum,' saith Canair, ' but that I may hav gesthg with thee in this iland.' ' 'Women enter not this iland,' saith Senin. ' 'How canst thou say that? ' saith Canair. ' Christ came to redeem women no less than to redeem men. No less did He suffer for the sake of women than for the sake of men. Women hav givn service and tendance unto Christ and His Apostle. No less Yr. STOKES replied that it was so. curious way of writing the E atin uema. He afterwards found it Friday, December 3, 1886. A. J. ELLIS, Esq., Vice-Preeident, in the Chair. The paper red was on " The Assyrian Noun," by Y. Bertin. At the request of the author, the report o f the paper ia omitted. Langstaf€, native, a friend of Mr. I. W., then a student in the Wesleyan Training Coll., Westminster, and revised by Mr. T. Dawson Ridley, of Coatham, Redcar. Next follow 3 interlinear dt.; for V iii from East Holderness, by Mr. Stead ; for Sutton, 3 ne. Hull, written in Glossic by M i . E. French, long resident in Hull ; and for V iv from Goole, by the late Rev. Dr. Thompson, Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, who had been curate there, and from whose reading I pal. it. Finally, I have 4 wl., for V i Gom Mid Yo., by Mr. C. C. Robinson, very full ; for V ii from Danby in Cleveland, by Rev. J. C. Atkinson, and from Whitby by the late F. I ( . Robinson ; for V iii a very full wl., pal. by me from the dictation of Rev. Jackson Wray; and for Holderness, n. part by Mr. S. Holderness, w. part by Mr. F. €toss, and e. part by Yr. Stead, the xxx PHILOLOOICAL S o c m ' s PROCEEDWOS. three authors of Holderness Glossary for those divisions respectively (who bestowed great pains upon it, and Mr. Stead gave me his part w. and interpreted the other parts) ; and from Snaith, 18 8. by e. Pork, by Rev. T. W. Norwood, 40 years acquainted with the dialect. D 31, or WN. This large tract of country comprises s. Du., W. and m. Cu., all We., the hundred of Lonsdale n. and s. of the Sands in n. La. and the hilly part of w. Yo. to the west of a line drawn from the Tee's mouth up to Croft, and then down to Middleham in Wensleydale, and Burley-on-the-Wharfe, and to the n. of the n. theeth line 5. Although there is on the whole great uniformity and homogeneousness throughout the whole region, I FRIDAY, MAY 6, 1887.-M~. A. J. ELLIS. xxxi thus (di), the effect of which is not unlike the M. (B'u). Each of the three forms (Glu, BG, ce'u) is conceived by the speakers as 00 (uu), and each generates om (ah). The principal illustration of this interesting district consists of 22 interlinear cs., of which the first and last two are added to shew the contrast with D 30 on the one hand, and the relation to D 32 on the other. For V i there are 2 CA. from Upper Swaledale and Wensleydale, wonderful pieces of phonetic writing by Mr. J. G. G., the Craven portion being otherwise represented. For V i i there is a cs. from Cartmel by Mr. T. H., and another from Coniston, written by the old postmaster Mr. Roger Bowness, and pal. by me from the reading of Miss Hell. In the introduction to V ii I give Mr. R. B. Peacock's versions of the Song of Solomon chap. ii. from Frans. Philological SOC. 1867, part ii., pal. by me from his key, ibid. p. 11, assisted by two wl. for Vii, mentioned below. Then for Viii there are six cs. all pal. by Mr. J. G. 0. for Kirkby Lonsdale We., Dent and Sedberg in Yo., and Kendal, Long Sleddale and Orton in We. Next for V iv there are six cs. all pal. by Mr. J. G. G., and some many times revised, for Kirkby Stephen, Crossby Ravensworth, Temple Sowerby (from the late Mrs. Atkinson), Milburn, all in We., and Langwathby (from the late Miss Powley, the Cu. poetess, sister of the above Mrs. Atkinson) and Ellonby, both in Cu. For V v there are three CS., one pal. by Mr. J. G. G. from Mr. Postlethwaite for Keswkk, oue pal. by me from Mr. Hetherington, son of the late vicar of Clifton, near Workington (the late Mr. Dickinson, author of the Cu. Glossary, also sent me a cs. from Workington, but as I had no opportunity of hearing him read it, I have used Mr. Hetherington's instead), and one from Holme Cultram or Abbey Holme, from the dictation of the Rev. T. Ellwood, of Torver, near Coniston. The Craven form of V i i H illustrated by quite a unique specimen, William Seward's Familiar Dialogue for Burton-in-Londale Yo., 13 ne. Lancaster, printed in 1801, very rare, and lent me by Prince L.-L. Bonaparte, which Mr. J. G. G. has palaeotyped from the reading of the postmaster of the place, a contemporary and fellowtownsman of the author. This will be given interlinearly with the original spelling, a good specimen of its kind, but utterly inadequate for the present purpose. V vi is illustrated by EL dt. from Stanhope, Weardale, by Yr. Egglestone, author of those excellent dialect books, Betty Podkins' Pieit to Auckland FZoww Show and Letter to tJu Quaen m Claopatra'e Needle, with the principal variants from three other dt. (1) for Heathery Cleugh, from Mr. Dalton, the schoolmaster, a t the request of Rev. W. Featherstonehaugh, rector of Edmondbyers, n. Du.; (2) for Bishop Auckland, by Mr. J. Wild, master of the Union Workhouse, at the request of the then vicar, Rev. R. Long; and (3) from Easingtou and Hart Du., by Miss E. P. Harrison, daughter of the vicar. Finally, I give five wl. ( 1) for V i from North Craven, that is, Burton-in-Lonsdale, Chapel-le-Dale, and Horton-in-Ribblesdale, xxxii PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY'S PEOCEEDINOS. pal. from the dictation of three informants by Mr. J. G. G. ; (2) and (3) for V ii, the first for Lonsdale, s. of the Sands, chiefly from wn. by Mr. T. H., and the second from High Furness, partly from Mr. T. H.'s collections, and partly from a wl. written by Rev. T. Ellwood, of Torver, Coniston, and pal. by me from the reading of Miss Bell, whom he especially recommended for her dialectal knowledge; (4) for V iii from Dent and Howgill (in Yo., but practically part of We.), pal. by Mr. J. G. 0. from dictation, and the latter ver3ed by me ; (5) from St. John's Weardale, pal. by Mr. J. G. G., and from Middleton-in-Tcesdale, by Rev. John Milner, rector, con' cturally pal. by myself. 1) 32, or "?This comprises a small portion of Cu. about Carlisle and Brampton, avoiding the northernmost parts about Longtown and Bewcastle; with the n. of Du. and the whole of Nb. except the n. slopes of the Cheviots, which are L. Six varieties are recognised, V i n.Cu., V ii s.Du., V iii sw.Nb., V iv se.Nb., V v m.Nb., and V vi n.Nb. The character is that of transition for U from (ul) through (w,) already mentioned, to (3). I n V i we have only (u,), in V vi we have only (x), the transition therefore is effected in the intermediate varieties. The fractures (ill G,u) exist, though they were not always dictated to me, and the former often sinks to (hi), while the latter thickens to (du) occasionally, so nearly that I often so wrote it from dictation. The I' generates a diphthong, which I heard like my own z (di, &V), but which is felt by natives as (hi, ~' i ) . The treatment of 0' vanes as (in, iie, icel), and never approaches French u (y), but it is curiously enough written ui in the Patman's Pay, the classical dialect book. The A, A' is (a'), the high northern sound, like French and Italian, but it is written aw in the Pitmnn's Pay as if it were (A). In V iii there is a peculiar pron. of A' as oh (oo), which seems greatly to amuse the Newcastle people. The def. art. is always th. l a m and I is (B)m, $ ) z ) are both used, but the latter is most frequent. At Chillingham and Chatton they pron. the initial Ch. as (sh), and Chillingham is the only name ending in -insham which is pronounced (-isam) ; all others, as Bellingham, Ovingham. have ( -i n d p ) as if written -inj,m. The burr or uvular r extends to Berwick, and to Falstone and Keilder on the n. slopes of the Cheviots, and uncertainly into n. Du. Although no really dialectal character, its nature and extent of use are fully investigated. The illustrations of V i, Carlisle and Knaresdale Nb., by Yr. J. G. G., are given in D 31 in the 22 interlinear cs., because they so much resemble the rest of Cu. For V i South Shields Du., V iv Newcastle-on-Tyne, V vi Berwick-on-Tweed, I give three interlinear cs. pal. by myself from dictation of Messrs. Pyke, Barkas, and Gunn respectively. For the rest I give 22 interlinear dt., of which 11 were pal. from dictation by myself, and the others pal. from written instructions and neighbouring analogues. Finally, I add three wl., one for V i from Brampton Cu., obtained by Yr. J. G. G. ; another for V ii from South Shields, from the This important Division has been partly treated by Dr. J. A. H. Murray in his Dialect8 of the South of Scotland, and my first intention was merely to add a few illustrations. I have had to do much more, but I have not attempted to treat L. so exhaustively as the English divisions. Dr. Murray's districts will be preserved, xxxiv PHILOLOOICAL SOCIETY'S PEOCEEDIBQS. but the numbering and positional names of the districts are mine, and the only changes I make are in the 8. border of D 33, SL., next EngIand, and the addition of the Orkneys and Shetlands, D 41 and 42, which Dr. Murray had omitted. In order to shew the general relations of all' parts of L. with each other, and with England, I commence with eight interlinear cs. for D 33, from Bewcastle to Longtown Cu., and Hawick, , and the Rev. Walter Gregor; and Stranraer, Caithness, and Dunrossness were pal. from dictation of natives by m y d f . Then I give five versions of Ruth chap. i., three from Dr. Murray's book, for D 33 Teviotdale, D 35 Ayr, and D 89 Buchan, contrasted with one for D 25 by Mr. Darlington, for s. Ch. in the M. div., and another for D 10 by Mr. Elworthy, for w. Sm., in the S. div., which admirably shew the difference between the English and L. divisions. By this means all the districts are illustrated except D 37 and D 41, but, as shewn below, I have succeeded in illustrating these, although in other ways, and have generally been able to obtain other specimens for each district, most of which will be mentioned. D 33, or SL, Dr. Murray's Soutbn Cwfities, comprises e. Dumfiies, Selkirk and Roxburghshire in Scotland, and a strip of Cu. and Nb. in England. This is the district of Dr. Murray's Dialects of t b South of Scotland. His wl. (ibid. pp. 144-149) will be reproduced, augmented by himself, and rearranged as in my other wl., with the pron. of every word in pal., an entirely new feature. This will be, at least in part, contrasted with wl. pal. from dictation by Mr. J. G. Goodchild for Liddisdale Head, Roxburgh town, Teviotdale Head and Selk'irk. Several sentences are added, written from dictation in Visible S'eech by Mr. A. Melville Bell, and pal. by me with corrections in a consultation with himself, his son, and Dr. Murray. Dr. Murray's Central &oqv consists of D 34 to 37, and in fact I have specimens; for Chirnside Bw. a wl. and dt. by Rev. G. Wilson, Free Church, Glenluce, Wigtonshire; for Mid Lothian some of &r. Melville Bell's sentences corrected as before; and the These are quite ready. These also are ready written. FMDAY, MAY 6, 1887.-M~. A. J. ELLIS. xxxv same for Fife, and the numerals in the same way for Peebles. A wl. has also been prepared containing all the words in these specimens. D 35, or w.ML, Dr. Murray's CZydeedale, is the land of Bums, and differs almost imperceptibly, so far as written evidence goes, from D34. It comprises a strip on the s. of Argyll, the n. of Ayrshire, the s. of Bute, e. and s. of Dumbarton, Lanark and Renfrew. From Lanark there are Mr. Melville Bell's s'entences corrected as before, From Coylton a wl. and dt. by Rev. Neil Livingston representing the Kyle district of m.Ayr. Burns's D 38, or s.NL., Dr. Murray's Angus, comprises 8 . Forfar and 6. Kincardine. The border between D 37 and D 38 is not very distinctly known, and by Dr. Murray's advice I have placed it a little more to the w. than on his map, so that the line runs from a little m. of Dundee through Kirriemuir and Clova, 5 and 15 nw. Forfar, to join the CB. or Celtic Border (aa I now name it) on the Grampians. From Arbroath, Forfarshire, I have the cs. already mentioned; from Uundee a dt. pal. by me in 1881 from dictation of a student at Whiteland's, who had been there 16 years. From Glenfarquhar, 11 w. by s. Stonehaven, I have a wl. and dt. by Yr. J. Ross, native, rector of the High School a t Arbroath. The chiet There is also a wl. compiled from several sources. xxxvi PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY'S TRANSACTIONS. peculiarity of this district is the restriction of the use of ( f ) for wh (kwh) to the following few words: who, when, where, what, whose, which, whether, how = why, whitterel a weasel, whorl = a wheel, called (fa, fe'n, faar, fat, fm, fd, fodher, fuu, fxhret, food). Here also begins the curious pron. of short i, which sounded to me at various times as (i, e, e, 3 ) .
doi:10.1111/j.1467-968x.1887.tb00100.x fatcat:lcbxmm6xyjb3jpws2xicd4jrpm