A Case of Cytomegalovirus Retinitis during Maintenance Chemotherapy for Acute Leukemia

Bin Ahn, Seungha Song, Mi Seon Han, Baek Lok Oh, Jae Hong Choi, Eun Hwa Choi
2020 Pediatric Infection & Vaccine  
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease is rare in children who receive anticancer chemotherapy and have no history of stem cell transplantation (SCT). We report a case of CMV retinitis that developed during maintenance chemotherapy for acute leukemia. A 7-year-old boy developed decreased visual acuity and persistent pancytopenia during maintenance chemotherapy. Laboratory investigations initially showed significant CMV antigenemia (51 positive cells/200,000 leukocytes); however, antiviral therapy was
more » ... deemed necessary in this patient who had no history of SCT. CMV antigenemia worsened to 170 positive cells/200,000 leukocytes over 3 weeks. Ophthalmological examination revealed multiple bilateral retinal infiltrates and granular lesions. He was diagnosed with CMV retinitis and was treated with a 4-week course of intravenous ganciclovir and intravitreal injection of ganciclovir 6 times, followed by a 1-month course of orally administered valganciclovir. A CMV antigenemia assay showed negative results, and follow-up fundoscopy revealed lesser retinal infiltration after the sixth intravitreal ganciclovir injection. Future studies should focus on the development of standardized screening methods and preemptive therapeutic strategies for CMV disease in high-risk children.
doi:10.14776/piv.2020.27.e19 fatcat:5gziir65mjfobpiyfg4dj7n4jm