Mobile Ad Hoc Networking [book]

Stefano Basagni, Marco Conti, Silvia Giordano, Ivan Stojmenovic
2004
Recent advances in portable computing and wireless technologies are opening up exciting possibilities for the future of wireless mobile networking. A Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET) consists of mobile platforms which are free to move arbitrarily. This is in contrast with the topology of the existing Internet, where the router topology is essentially static (barring network configuration or router failures). In a MANET, the nodes are mobile and inter-node connectivity may change frequently during
more » ... frequently during normal operation. In this course we will focus our attention on current protocols which provide connectivity in mobile ad hoc networks, such as routing and MAC protocols. Moreover, we will also cover an emerging promising area within ad hoc networks called Sensor Networks and demonstrate its wide applicability. We will conclude this course by discussing current challenges to mobile networking that have not received as much attention from the research community, and then highlighting some of the current wireless protocol standardization efforts within the IETF and the Bluetooth SIG (Special Interest Group). with multimedia applications, global roaming capability, and coordination with other network structures, are enabling new applications. Some well-known ad hoc network applications are: • Collaborative Work -For some business environments, the need for collaborative computing might be more important outside office environments than inside. After all, it is often the case where people do need to have outside meetings to cooperate and exchange information on a given project. • Crisis-management Applications -These arise, for example, as a result of natural disasters where the entire communications infrastructure is in disarray. Restoring communications quickly is essential. By using ad hoc networks, an infrastructure could be set up in hours instead of days/weeks required for wire-line communications. • Personal Area Networking and Bluetooth -A personal area network (PAN) is a shortrange, localized network where nodes are usually associated with a given person. These nodes could be attached to someone's pulse watch, belt, and so on. In these scenarios, mobility is only a major consideration when interaction among several PANs is necessary, illustrating the case where, for instance, people meet in real life. Bluetooth [Haarsten 1998 ], is a technology aimed at, among other things, supporting PANs by eliminating the need of wires between devices such as printers, PDAs, notebook computers, digital cameras, and so on, and is discussed later. Routing in a MANET It has become clear that routing in a MANET is intrinsically different from traditional routing found on infrastructured networks. Routing in a MANET depends on many factors including topology, selection of routers, initiation of request, and specific underlying characteristic that could serve as a heuristic in finding the path quickly and efficiently. The low resource availability in these networks demands efficient utilization and hence the motivation for optimal routing in ad hoc networks. Also, the highly dynamic nature of these networks imposes severe restrictions on routing protocols specifically designed for them, thus motivating the study of protocols which aim at achieving routing stability. One of the major challenges in designing a routing protocol [Jubin 1987] for ad hoc networks stems from the fact that, on one hand, a node needs to know at least the reachability information to its neighbors for determining a packet route and, on the other hand, the network topology can change quite often in an ad hoc network. Furthermore, as the number of network nodes can be large, finding route to the destinations also requires large and frequent
doi:10.1002/0471656895 fatcat:5vq3qregzzhvjcp6ocmciqt7fy