Proteome-wide and lysine crotonylation profiling reveals the importance of crotonylation in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiforum) under low-temperature
Background: Low-temperature severely affects the growth and development of chrysanthemum which is one kind of ornamental plant well-known and widely used in the world. Lysine crotonylation is a recently identified post-translational modification (PTM) with multiple cellular functions. However, lysine crotonylation under low-temperature stress has not been studied. Results: Proteome-wide and lysine crotonylation of chrysanthemum at low temperature was analyzed using TMT labeling, sensitive
... -precipitation, and high-resolution LC-MS/MS. The results showed that 2017 crotonylation sites were identified in 1199 proteins. Treatment at 4 °C for 24 h and −4 °C for 4 h resulted in 393 upregulated proteins and 500 downregulated proteins (1.2-fold threshold and P < 0.05). Analysis of biological information showed that lysine crotonylation was involved in photosynthesis, ribosomes, and antioxidant systems. The crotonylated proteins and motifs in chrysanthemum were compared with other plants to obtain orthologous proteins and conserved motifs. To further understand how lysine crotonylation at K136 affected APX (ascorbate eroxidase), we performed a site-directed mutation at K136 in APX. Site-directed crotonylation showed that lysine decrotonylation at K136 reduced APX activity, and lysine complete crotonylation at K136 increased APX activity. Conclusion: In summary, our study comparatively analyzed proteome-wide and crotonylation in chrysanthemum under low-temperature stress and provided insights into the mechanisms of crotonylation in positively regulated APX activity to reduce the oxidative damage caused by low-temperature stress. These data provided an important basis for studying crotonylation to regulate antioxidant enzyme activity in response to low-temperature stress and a new research ideas for chilling-tolerance and freezing-tolerance chrysanthemum molecular breeding.