Harvesting Energy from Ocean: Technologies and Perspectives

Muhammed Zafar Ali Khan, Haider Ali Khan, Muhammad Aziz
2022 Energies  
The optimal utilization of renewable energies is a crucial factor toward the realization of sustainability and zero carbon in a future energy system. Tidal currents, waves, and thermal and salinity gradients in the ocean are excellent renewable energy sources. Ocean tidal, osmotic, wave, and thermal energy sources have yearly potentials that exceed the global power demand of 22,848 TWh/y. This paper extensively reviews the technologies related to energy harvesting from waves, tidal, ocean
more » ... ls, and the salinity gradient. Moreover, the socio-economic, social, and environmental aspects of the above technologies are also discussed. This paper provides a better picture of where to invest in the future energy market and highlights research gaps and recommendations for future research initiatives. It is expected that a better insight into ocean energy and a deep understanding of various potential devices can lead to a broader adoption of ocean energy. It is also clear that further research into control strategies is needed. Policy makers should provide financial support for technologies in the demonstration stage and employ road mapping to accelerate the cost and risk reductions to overcome economic hurdles. To identify traditional and online sources on the topic, the authors used electronic databases and keyword searching approaches. Among them, the International Renewable Energy Agency data were the primary database utilized to locate sources.
doi:10.3390/en15093456 fatcat:qp3kp3rhljcmtoxd3nixkzftfe