Amanda Higgins
all provided excellent feedback and encouragement throughout the writing and editing process. Their keen eyes, discerning questions, and belief in my project improved this dissertation. This project was greatly aided by the generosity of a number of people. Thank you to Ericka Huggins, Gwen Patton, and Cleveland Sellers for taking time out of their busy schedules to talk with me. Thank you to Harry Miller at the Wisconsin State Historical Society, the staff of the Avery Center at the College of
more » ... Charleston, and the staff at Trenholm State's library for sending me hundreds of copies of documents I would otherwise not have had access to. Thank you to the New York Public Library for their Short-term Fellowship and the staff of the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture for all their work. My research trips were aided by the History Department's Charles P. Roland and Dorothy Leathers Fellowship awards, as well as the Gender and Women's Studies Department's Bonnie Cox award. I am indebted to their belief in higher education and the importance of humanities research. iv People say having one good friend makes a person rich. If so, I must be a special kind of lucky to call so many people friends. In the History Department, I am thankful for the support of colleagues and friends, especially Robert Murray and his wife Amy, Anthony Miller and his wife Stephanie, Robert Turpin and his wife Julia, and Dana Caldemeyer. Rachel Hogg, a historian turned Public Health guru, made long days in front of the computer much more fun with gchat sessions, news tidbits, and lots of encouragement. Whether a day on the lake, lunch between classes, or an adult beverage after a long conference, they all made the 17 th floor a more welcoming place. James Savage has been a great friend. Though we started off quite unsure of each other, James' love, support, and good natured heckling made this long process livelier. I taught him basketball, betting, and bourbon (i.e. how to be a Kentuckian), and he taught me slang, Louisiana, and how to be a better writer, as we shared the anxieties and triumphs of Ph.D. work, research breakthroughs, and life lessons. His friendship means more than a few lines in an acknowledgement section can possibly encompass. In my life off UK's campus, I have been overwhelmingly blessed to call Tara Bonistall Noland, Katie Lynch, and Grace Hahn my closest friends. Always only a phone call away, these women are my cheerleaders, while reminding me to stay grounded and focused. Tara teaches me on a regular basis to give a little more of myself than I thought possible. Katie's dedication inspires me to work harder, even when the goal seems out of reach. Grace's passion helps me to be a better role model for my students and an advocate for myself. I am proud to call them my friends and sisters and would truly be the poorer without them. v I would be remiss not to mention a group of hilarious, cutting, but, in the end, loveable men who have stuck by the Higgins for the last decade. Zac Noland, Chris Johnson, and Michael Hester are the truest of friends. Genuine assholes, they keep me on my toes, while making it abundantly clear that I can always count on them. With the aid of far too much alcohol and more late nights than I care to remember, they've become members of our family, and allowed us to be a part of theirs. The guest bed is always ready, a table spot set, and the door open, whenever any of you need it. My parents, Dave and Paula Duncan, deserve special thanks for all they've done to make my life better. Through basketball games, SEC tournaments, and hundreds of meals, they provided escape, nourishment, and encouragement every step of the way. My mom traveled with me to San Francisco and New York while I researched this project. And though those trips served as the basis for much of my dissertation, they mattered so much more to me because she was there. She never imposed on my time or schedule, but always had a plan when I returned. The lights of Broadway and the smell of the Wharf would have been much less enchanting without her. My dad's questions and his desire to pick fights with his "black sheep" daughter made me a strong debater at an early age. I would not be the confident person I am today without his constant ribbing. Though I never took up golf, I am my father's child, his oldest and loudest daughter-the one most like him. A decade ago, I met a young man on the intramural fields behind the Johnson Center at UK. His love for life, unkempt hair, and sweet smile quickly melted my initial desire to remain single during my freshman year of college. Now, after six years of marriage, I can honestly say that meeting Matt Higgins that cool fall night in 2003 was vi the luckiest I may ever be. Matt is nothing short of amazing. A Southern gentleman, a talented cook and baker, and a handy man, he makes life fun. He's my biggest supporter, my most loyal ally, and my favorite Keeneland companion. So to Matt: Thank you for the million little ways you just make the days move easy. Thank you for listening, for having excellent taste in music and enjoying concerts, for always believing I could do this, and for constantly being proud of me. It hasn't always been perfect, but it's always been us, and that will always be enough. I love you. vii TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .