Assessment of the antibacterial, antivirulence, and action mechanism of Copaifera pubiflora oleoresin and isolated compounds against oral bacteria
Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy
The microorganisms that constitute the oral microbiome can cause oral diseases, including dental caries and endodontic infections. The use of natural products could help to overcome bacterial resistance to the antimicrobials that are currently employed in clinical therapy. This study assessed the antimicrobial activity of the Copaifera pubiflora oleoresin and of the compounds isolated from this resin against oral bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal
... m bactericidal concentration (MBC) assays provided values ranging from 6.25 to > 400 μg/mL for the C. pubiflora oleoresin and its isolated compounds. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) assay showed that the oleoresin and chlorhexidine did not act synergistically. All the tested bacterial strains formed biofilms. MICB50 determination revealed inhibitory action: values varied from 3.12-25 μg/mL for the oleoresin, and from 0.78 to 25 μg/mL for the ent-hardwickiic acid. Concerning biofilm eradication, the C. pubiflora oleoresin and hardwickiic acid eradicated 99.9 % of some bacterial biofilms. Acid resistance determination showed that S. mutans was resistant to acid in the presence of the oleoresin and ent-hardwickiic acid at pH 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0 at all the tested concentrations. Analysis of DNA/RNA and protein release by the cell membrane demonstrated that the oleoresin and hardwiickic acid damaged the bacterial membrane irreversibly, which affected membrane integrity. Therefore, the C. pubiflora oleoresin and ent-hardwickiic acid have potential antibacterial effect and can be used as new therapeutic alternatives to treat oral diseases such as dental caries and endodontic infections.