Clinical research with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS): Challenges and future directions

Andre Russowsky Brunoni, Michael A. Nitsche, Nadia Bolognini, Marom Bikson, Tim Wagner, Lotfi Merabet, Dylan J. Edwards, Antoni Valero-Cabre, Alexander Rotenberg, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Roberta Ferrucci, Alberto Priori (+2 others)
2012 Brain Stimulation  
Brain Stimulation (2012) 5, 175-95 and phase I studies into phase II and III clinical studies. The aim of this comprehensive review is to discuss the key challenges of this process and possible methods to address them. Methods We convened a workgroup of researchers in the field to review, discuss, and provide updates and key challenges of tDCS use in clinical research. Main Findings/Discussion We reviewed several basic and clinical studies in the field and identified
more » ... ial limitations, taking into account the particularities of the technique. We review and discuss the findings into four topics: (1) mechanisms of action of tDCS, parameters of use and computer-based human brain modeling investigating electric current fields and magnitude induced by tDCS; (2) methodologic aspects related to the clinical research of tDCS as divided according to study phase (ie, preclinical, phase I, phase II, and phase III studies); (3) ethical and regulatory concerns; and (4) future directions regarding novel approaches, novel devices, and future studies involving tDCS. Finally, we propose some alternative methods to facilitate clinical research on tDCS.
doi:10.1016/j.brs.2011.03.002 pmid:22037126 pmcid:PMC3270156 fatcat:cz4ryhejfjgrvmmruu7p6tjbv4