Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning is a Sequence Modeling Problem
Large sequence model (SM) such as GPT series and BERT has displayed outstanding performance and generalization capabilities on vision, language, and recently reinforcement learning tasks. A natural follow-up question is how to abstract multi-agent decision making into an SM problem and benefit from the prosperous development of SMs. In this paper, we introduce a novel architecture named Multi-Agent Transformer (MAT) that effectively casts cooperative multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL)
... o SM problems wherein the task is to map agents' observation sequence to agents' optimal action sequence. Our goal is to build the bridge between MARL and SMs so that the modeling power of modern sequence models can be unleashed for MARL. Central to our MAT is an encoder-decoder architecture which leverages the multi-agent advantage decomposition theorem to transform the joint policy search problem into a sequential decision making process; this renders only linear time complexity for multi-agent problems and, most importantly, endows MAT with monotonic performance improvement guarantee. Unlike prior arts such as Decision Transformer fit only pre-collected offline data, MAT is trained by online trials and errors from the environment in an on-policy fashion. To validate MAT, we conduct extensive experiments on StarCraftII, Multi-Agent MuJoCo, Dexterous Hands Manipulation, and Google Research Football benchmarks. Results demonstrate that MAT achieves superior performance and data efficiency compared to strong baselines including MAPPO and HAPPO. Furthermore, we demonstrate that MAT is an excellent few-short learner on unseen tasks regardless of changes in the number of agents. See our project page at https://sites.google.com/view/multi-agent-transformer.