Antidesma thwaitesianum Müll. Arg. fruit extract rich in 5-hydroxymethylfurfural exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages

Orapin Insuan, Benchaluk Thongchuai, Supaporn Khamchun, Wimonrut Insuan, Daoyot Daorueang, Plubplung Sansai
2022 Journal of HerbMed Pharmacology  
Antidesma thwaitesianum Müll. Arg is a tropical fruit, which has been commonly used for healthy food and traditional herbal medicine. This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of A. thwaitesianum fruit extract (AFE) rich in 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Methods: The chemical composition of AFE was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). RAW264.7 cells were used as an in vitro inflammatory
more » ... e model. RAW264.7 cells were pre-treated with various concentrations of AFE or 5-HMF and subsequently treated with LPS. Cell viability was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The production levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators, including nitric oxide (NO), interleukin (IL)-1β, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α were determined by the Griess assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was examined by western blot analysis. Results: AFE had a high content of 5-HMF (61.03% ± 0.49%). Pre-treatment with AFE and 5-HMF markedly reduced LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines, namely NO, IL-1β, and TNF-α, in RAW264.7 cells; this reduction correlated with downregulation of iNOS expression. Conclusion: This study suggests that A. thwaitesianum fruit extract containing 5-HMF could modulate the LPS-induced inflammatory response by inhibiting NO, IL-1β, and TNF-α production and iNOS expression. A. thwaitesianum fruit extract rich in 5-HMF could be considered a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention of inflammation.
doi:10.34172/jhp.2022.33 fatcat:gb3fnwzkxnfkxkekezvplcgihi