Program planning in the Ethiopian extension service : its evolution and structure
This study examined the program planning mechanism and structure in Ethiopian agricultural extension. Agricultural extension was seen by most policy makers and funding agencies as one of the alternatives to rural development. Extension was defined as an out-of-school educational process of working with rural people utilizing particular teaching techniques and certain supporting services with a distinctive spirit of cooperation and mutual respect. The goal was to enable people to acquire and use
... skills, knowledge and information to improve their lives. In order to achieve the objective of the study, the history of agricultural extension in Ethiopia from 1952 to 1980 was reviewed and the origin, trends and problems in extension program planning in Ethiopia were discussed. Following the historical analysis, a review of program planning models relevant to agricultural extension was provided. The study, after presenting an examination of the program planning mechanism in Ethiopia, conducted a critical analysis of major problems. The major problems identified are related to the basic program planning mechanism, coordination and training. An alternative mechanism was identified based on Sork's basic planning model. A summary was given. Major conclusions of the study were discussed in terms of program planning, particularly with respect to analysis of the planning context and client system, administrative planning, coordination and training programs required for effective extension education. The study revealed several important weaknesses in the extension program planning mechanism used in Ethiopia. It was suggested that if these weaknesses are eliminated, Ethiopian agricultural production — and the quality of life of those dependent on the agricultural sector — could be improved. Increasing collaboration between agencies, joint planning of programs, altering the programming sequence, and better timing of educational activities were suggested as means of improving agricultural extension services in Ethiopia.