Psychosocial costs of racism to whites: Exploring patterns through cluster analysis

Lisa B. Spanierman, V. Paul Poteat, Amanda M. Beer, Patrick Ian Armstrong
2006 Journal of Counseling Psychology  
Participants (230 White college students) completed the Psychosocial Costs of Racism to Whites (PCRW) Scale. Using cluster analysis, we identified 5 distinct cluster groups on the basis of PCRW subscale scores: the unempathic and unaware cluster contained the lowest empathy scores; the insensitive and afraid cluster consisted of low empathy and guilt scores, with the highest score on fear; the fearful guilt cluster exhibited elevations on guilt and fear; the empathic but unaccountable cluster
more » ... flected high empathy with low guilt and fear; and the informed empathy and guilt cluster represented those high on empathy and guilt in conjunction with low levels of fear. Groups were validated on an additional sample (n ϭ 366) and were found to differ significantly on theoretically related measures.
doi:10.1037/0022-0167.53.4.434 fatcat:gvfzpasi35ao5jkl6uxdy2g4n4