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The highly persistent and often lethal human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis contains at least 88 toxin -antitoxin (TA) genes. More than half of these encode VapC PIN domain endoribonucleases that inhibit cell growth by unknown mechanisms. Here we show that VapC20 of M. tuberculosis inhibits translation by cleavage of the Sarcin Ricin Loop (SRL) of 23S rRNA, at the same position where Sarcin and other eukaryotic ribo-toxins cleave. Toxin-inhibited cells can be rescued by expression of thedoi:10.1038/ncomms3796 pmid:24225902 fatcat:53lvdw7qjzh4jaw5xltgtro74q