On the family and subfamilies of Carangidae
Proceedings of the United States National Museum
The family of Carangidae, as limited by me iu the "Arrangement of the lamilies of Fishes" (also as iu the Proc. Acad. Xat. Sc. Phila., for 18C2, p. 430, after the exclusion of Pomatomns) is an exceedingly natural one, notwithstanding the differences iu external form. I have examined skulls of representatives of all the groups hereinafter named, and their common characters are so numerous, while their severally peculiar ones are so insignificant that the so-called subfamilies are scarcely
... are scarcely entitled to that rank. The most characteristic skull is manifested in Tracliynotus ; in that form, the orbito-rostral portion is shorter in comparison, the postfrontal bones larger and more projecting, the inner lateral crests more produced forwards than in any others, and the ethmoid is abbreviated and markedly and abruptly declined. Analagous characters in many families, however, are of inferior systematic value. It is to be also remarked that the Caranginte and Seriolinse are especially nearly allied, so far as their crania are concerned, and there is even less superficial difference between the skull of Seriola and most Carangina* e. g. Carangus-than between it and the related genus Elagatis. Greatly as the elongated Trachurus and the high Selene differ, even they essentially agree as to the structure of the skull, that of Selene differing from the Carangine chiefly in being compressed, with its crest elevated and extended backwards and its rcstral portion attenuated and produced forward. Its ethmoid especially is characteristic in being much compressed and carinated above instead of flattened and doubleheaded. If, therefore, the subfamilies already indicated are retained in the present communication, it is rather in order to epitomize the history expressed in their nomenclature than because I insist on or persist in their retention. The haernal canal is perhaps more characteristic. CARANGID^. Synonyms as families.