Rho Is Required for Gαqand α1-Adrenergic Receptor Signaling in Cardiomyocytes
Journal of Biological Chemistry
G protein-coupled receptor agonists initiate a cascade of signaling events in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes that culminates in changes in gene expression and cell growth characteristic of hypertrophy. These responses have been previously shown to be dependent on G q and Ras. Rho, a member of the Ras superfamily of GTPases, regulates cytoskeletal rearrangement and transcriptional activation of the c-fos serum response element. Immunofluorescence staining of cardiomyocytes shows that Rho is
... esent and predominantly cytosolic. We used two inhibitors of Rho function, dominant negative N19RhoA and Clostridium botulinum C3 transferase, to examine the possible requirement for Rho in ␣ 1 -adrenergic receptor-mediated hypertrophy. Both inhibitors markedly attenuated atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) reporter gene expression induced by ␣ 1 -adrenergic receptor stimulation with phenylephrine, and virtually abolished the increase in ANF reporter gene expression induced by GTPase-deficient G␣ q . These effects were reproduced with the myosin light chain-2 reporter gene. Notably, N19RhoA did not block the ability of activated Ras to induce ANF and myosin light chain-2 reporter gene expression. Furthermore, activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase by phenylephrine was not blocked by N19RhoA, nor was it stimulated by an activated mutant of RhoA. Since activated RhoA and Ras produce a large synergistic effect on ANF-luciferase gene expression, we conclude that Rho functions in a pathway separate from but complementary to Ras. Our results provide direct evidence that Rho is an effector of G␣ q signaling and suggest for the first time that a low molecular weight GTPase other than Ras is involved in regulating myocardial cell growth and gene expression in response to heterotrimeric G protein-linked receptor activation.