Mapping Steam and Water Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs
SPE Reservoir Engineering
DISCLAMER This document wae prapred ae an account of WOWeponaod by an agency of the United Statea Govarn.rmmt. Neither the United Statee Government nor the UNveraity of CaMornia nor any of their employees, makea any warranty, express or implied, or aeeumeaany legal liabilitym rqomfMity for the accuracy, completexwm or usefulness of any infmmaticm, apparatue, product, or process dkloae4 or repreeanta that its uae would not int%ngaprivately owned nghta. Raferencaherein to any apedfic mmmerdd
... pedfic mmmerdd produ~proceaa, or eervice by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, do= not necay mns~~~or~PIY i~md~menb recommendation, or favoring by the United Statea Government or the Univemity of California. The viewe and opinioneof authors expeeed herein do not nace@udy state or reflect tlrme of the United StateeGovernment or the UNvareity of CaMbrn4 and ahd not be used for dVdi3@ m prOdUCt andoraementpuqxwaa. .. Mapping Abstract Over the past 5 years, we have applied high-resolution geophysical methods(crosswell seismicandelectromagnetic (EM),andpassiveseismic)to mapandcharacterize petrokxyn reservoirsin the San JoaquinValleyand to monitorchanges during secondaryrecoveryoperations.The two techniques providecomplementaryinformation. Seismicdatarevealthe "reservoirstructure, whereas EM measurementsare more sensitiveto theporefluid" distribution. Seismicsurveysat the SouthBelridgefield wereusedto mapfracturegenerationandmonitorformationchangesdueto the onset of steam flooding. Early results show possible sensitivityto changesin gas saturationcausedby the steam flooding.CrosswellEM surveyswere appliedat a shallow~l ijdp ilot at Lost Hills for reservoircharacterization and steamflood monitoring.Imagesmade from baselinedata clearly showthe distributionof the targetoil sands;repeatedsurveys duringthesteamfloodallowedus to identifitheboundaries of the steam chest and to accurately predict breakthrough. Applications of the EMtechniquesin steel-casedwellsare at .