Cardiac and respiratory activity at arousal from sleep under controlled ventilation conditions

John Trinder, Marinella Padula, David Berlowitz, Jan Kleiman, Sibilah Breen, Peter Rochford, Christopher Worsnop, Bruce Thompson, Robert Pierce
2001 Journal of applied physiology  
Arousal from sleep is associated with elevated cardiac and respiratory activity. It is unclear whether this occurs because of homeostatic mechanisms or a reflex activation response associated with arousal. Cardiorespiratory activity was measured during spontaneous arousals from sleep in subjects breathing passively on a ventilator. Under such conditions, homeostatic mechanisms are eliminated. Ventilation, end-tidal PCO 2 , mask pressure, diaphragmatic electromyograph, heart rate, and blood
more » ... ure were measured in four normal subjects under two conditions: assisted ventilation and a normal ventilation control condition. In the control condition, there was a normal, sleep-related fall in ventilation and rise in end-tidal PCO 2 . Subsequently, at an arousal, there was an increase in respiratory and cardiac activity. In the ventilator condition, a vigorous cardiorespiratory response to a spontaneous arousal from sleep remained. These results indicate that sleep-related respiratory stimuli are not necessary for the occurrence of elevated cardiorespiratory activity at an arousal from sleep and are consistent with the hypothesis that such activity is at least in part due to a reflex activation response.
doi:10.1152/jappl.2001.90.4.1455 pmid:11247947 fatcat:322fzqtxxvgg5nixmuxwhc7gpi