Developing female removal for Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in organic pear in the USA and Italy

Michele Preti, Alan Lee Knight, María Valentina Mujica, Esteban Basoalto, Riccardo Favaro, Sergio Angeli
2021 Journal of applied entomology  
Seventeen trials were conducted using traps baited with kairomone-based lures to evaluate female removal (FR) as an effective management tactic for codling moth, Cydia pomonella, L., in organic pear, Pyrus communis L., production in Italy and USA during 2019-2020. Studies included paired plots (0.4-1.4 ha) treated with or without 60 traps ha −1 in cultivars Bartlett and Abate Fétel. Paired plots were also treated together with or without mating disruption (MD) and with similar spray programmes.
more » ... Three-, four-, and five-component lures were used with several trap types: green, clear or green/white bucket traps and orange delta traps. The three-component lure consisted of (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (sex pheromone, PH), (E,Z)-2,4-ethyl decadienoate (pear ester, PE) and acetic acid (AA); the four-component lure was PE, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), 6-ethenyl-2,2,6-trimethyloxan-3-ol (pyranoid linalool oxide, LOX), and AA, and the five-component lure had PH added. Preliminary studies were also conducted to evaluate the trapping efficacy of nonsaturating bucket traps. A clear bucket trap baited with PE/DMNT/LOX + AA captured 97-fold more codling moth females than an orange delta trap baited with PH/ PE. However, female captures did not differ between traps when both were baited with the four-component lure. Fruit injury from codling moth was significantly reduced with the implementation of FR in both pear production regions. At harvest, mean fruit protection in the USA studies was 65% and 27% in Italy. This difference was likely associated with the four-component lure being less effective in Italy than in the USA. Nevertheless, results demonstrate that FR can be a useful approach to remove females immigrating into orchards and as a new tactic to reduce pest pressure in selected areas of orchards allowing both MD and organic insecticide programmes to be more effective. Further studies should investigate the cost-benefit of matching the intensity of FR to variable pest pressures. K E Y W O R D S bucket trap, Codling moth, mass trapping, organic pest management, Pyrus communis | 11 PRETI ET al. ACK N OWLED G EM ENTS We would like to thank Bill Lingren, Trécé Inc., Adair, OK, for supplying lures and trapping materials.
doi:10.1111/jen.12918 fatcat:lkr2htvhuvfcxfglrfg6df2jcq