Uptake of Oxidized LDL by Macrophages Results in Partial Lysosomal Enzyme Inactivation and Relocation

W. Li, X. M. Yuan, A. G. Olsson, U. T. Brunk
1998 Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology  
The cytotoxicity of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) to several types of artery wall cells might contribute to atherosclerosis by causing cell death, presumably by both apoptosis and necrosis. After its uptake into macrophage lysosomes by receptor-mediated endocytosis, oxLDL is poorly degraded, resulting in ceroid-containing foam cells. We studied the influence of oxLDL on lysosomal enzyme activity and, in particular, on lysosomal membrane stability and the modulation of these cellular characteristics by
more » ... L and vitamin E (vit-E). Unexposed cells and cells exposed to acetylated LDL (AcLDL) were used as controls. The lysosomal marker enzymes cathepsin L and N-acetyl-␤-glucosaminidase (NA␤Gase) were biochemically assayed in J-774 cells after fractionation. Lysosomal integrity in living cells was assayed by the acridine orange (AO) relocation test. Cathepsin D was immunocytochemically demonstrated in J-774 cells and human monocyte-derived macrophages. We found that the total activities of NA␤Gase and cathepsin L were significantly decreased, whereas their relative cytosolic activities were enhanced, after oxLDL exposure. Labilization of the lysosomal membranes was further proven by decreased lysosomal AO uptake and relocation to the cytosol of cathepsin D, as estimated by light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry. HDL and vit-E diminished the cytotoxicity of oxLDL by decreasing the lysosomal damage. The results indicate that endocytosed oxLDL not only partially inactivates lysosomal enzymes but also destabilizes the acidic vacuolar compartment, causing relocation of lysosomal enzymes to the cytosol. Exposure to AcLDL resulted in its uptake with enlargement of the lysosomal apparatus, but the stability of the lysosomal membranes was not changed. (Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1998;18:177-184.)
doi:10.1161/01.atv.18.2.177 pmid:9484981 fatcat:bt4do64mi5c37nzv3isgzlwqde