Pioglitazone for primary stroke prevention in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors: a retrospective study
Yi-Chih Hung, Lu-Ting Chiu, Hung-Yu Huang, Da-Tian Bau
Studies assessing the efficacy of pioglitazone solely for primary stroke prevention in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and present multiple cardiovascular (CV) risk factors are rare. Thus, we aimed to assess the effect of pioglitazone on primary stroke prevention in Asian patients with type 2 DM without established CV diseases but with risk factors for CV diseases. Between 2000 and 2012, we enrolled patients aged ≥ 18 years, who were newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and
... at least one of the following CV risk factors: hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Patients with a history of stroke and those using insulin or glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist for more than 3 months were excluded. Patients were divided into the pioglitazone and non-pioglitazone groups based on their receipt of pioglitazone during the follow-up period. Propensity-score matching (1:1) was used to balance the distribution of the baseline characteristics and medications. Follow-up was terminated upon ischemic stroke development, withdrawal from the insurance system, or on December 31, 2013, whichever occurred first. The overall incidence of new-onset ischemic stroke in the two groups was subsequently compared. The subgroup analyses of ischemic stroke were conducted using different baseline features. Additionally, the effect of pioglitazone exposure dose on the occurrence of ischemic stroke was evaluated. Chi square test, Student's t-test, competing risk regression models, Kaplan-Meier method, and log-rank test were some of the statistical tests conducted. A total of 13 078 patients were included in the pioglitazone and non-pioglitazone groups. Compared with patients who did not receive pioglitazone, those administered pioglitazone had a lower risk of developing ischemic stroke (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.78; 95% confidence interval: 0.62-0.95). The subgroup analyses defined by different baseline features did not reveal significant alterations in the observed effect of pioglitazone. Moreover, a significant decreasing trend in ischemic stroke risk with an increase in pioglitazone dose (p-value for trend = 0.04) was observed. Pioglitazone use decreased the risk of new-onset ischemic stroke in Asian patients with type 2 DM and CV risk factors. Trial registration number CMUH104-REC2-115-CR4.