Functional aspects, phenotypic heterogeneity, and tissue immune response of macrophages in infectious diseases

de Sousa JR, Da Costa Vasconcelos PF, Quaresma JAS
2019 Infection and Drug Resistance  
Jorge Rodrigues de Sousa,1,2 Pedro Fernando Da Costa Vasconcelos,2,3 Juarez Antonio Simões Quaresma1–41Tropical Medicine Center, Federal University of Pará, Belém, PA, Brazil; 2Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, PA, Brazil; 3Center of Biological and Health Sciences, State University of Pará, Belém, PA, Brazil; 4School of Medicine, São Paulo University, São Paulo, SP, BrazilCorrespondence: Juarez Antonio Simões QuaresmaTropical Medicine Center, Federal University of Pará,
more » ... v. Generalissimo Deodoro 92, Umarizal, Belém 66055-240, PA, BrazilEmail juarez.quaresma@gmail.comAbstract: Macrophages are a functionally heterogeneous group of cells with specialized functions depending not only on their subgroup but also on the function of the organ or tissue in which the cells are located. The concept of macrophage phenotypic heterogeneity has been investigated since the 1980s, and more recent studies have identified a diverse spectrum of phenotypic subpopulations. Several types of macrophages play a central role in the response to infectious agents and, along with other components of the immune system, determine the clinical outcome of major infectious diseases. Here, we review the functions of various macrophage phenotypic subpopulations, the concept of macrophage polarization, and the influence of these cells on the evolution of infections. In addition, we emphasize their role in the immune response in vivo and in situ, as well as the molecular effectors and signaling mechanisms used by these cells. Furthermore, we highlight the mechanisms of immune evasion triggered by infectious agents to counter the actions of macrophages and their consequences. Our aim here is to provide an overview of the role of macrophages in the pathogenesis of critical transmissible diseases and discuss how elucidation of this relationship could enhance our understanding of the host–pathogen association in organ-specific immune responses.Keywords: macrophage, macrophage phenotype, macrophage activation, infections, infectiou [...]
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