MMP-9 Signaling Pathways That Engage Rho GTPases in Brain Plasticity

Izabela Figiel, Patrycja K. Kruk, Monika Zaręba-Kozioł, Paulina Rybak, Monika Bijata, Jakub Wlodarczyk, Joanna Dzwonek
2021 Cells  
The extracellular matrix (ECM) has been identified as a critical factor affecting synaptic function. It forms a functional scaffold that provides both the structural support and the reservoir of signaling molecules necessary for communication between cellular constituents of the central nervous system (CNS). Among numerous ECM components and modifiers that play a role in the physiological and pathological synaptic plasticity, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) has recently emerged as a key
more » ... ule. MMP-9 may contribute to the dynamic remodeling of structural and functional plasticity by cleaving ECM components and cell adhesion molecules. Notably, MMP-9 signaling was shown to be indispensable for long-term memory formation that requires synaptic remodeling. The core regulators of the dynamic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and cell adhesion are the Rho family of GTPases. These proteins have been implicated in the control of a wide range of cellular processes occurring in brain physiology and pathology. Here, we discuss the contribution of Rho GTPases to MMP-9-dependent signaling pathways in the brain. We also describe how the regulation of Rho GTPases by post-translational modifications (PTMs) can influence these processes.
doi:10.3390/cells10010166 pmid:33467671 fatcat:e73y23fzbzd7bkhyonodeeotue