Bone mineral density in patients with systemic sclerosis and its association with hand involvement
Aim of the work: The aim of the present study is to assess bone mineral density (BMD) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients and to determine associated factors. Patients and methods: Sixty-five female SSc patients (mean age 39.5 ± 13.5 years, disease duration 7.3 ± 5.9 years), and forty age-and sex-matched controls were included. Forty-seven patients had limited SSc and 18 had diffuse type. Patients were subjected to clinical and functional assessment. BMD was quantified at the distal radius,
... e distal radius, femoral neck and lumbar spine (L2-4) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: SSc patients had a higher frequency of osteoporosis at the distal radius and osteopenia at the lumbar spine (p = 0.001 and 0.002, respectively), but the BMD at the femoral neck was not significantly different from the control group. Patients with osteoporosis at the distal radius had a significantly higher frequency of hand deformities (p < 0.05) and higher functional scores reflecting more disability than patients without (p = 0.01), while patients with osteoporosis at the lumbar spine were significantly older (p < 0.001) and had a longer disease duration than those without (p = 0.001). No associations were found between menopausal status, SSc subtype, skin score, internal organ affection and osteoporosis at the three skeletal sites.