Development of Seven Hardwood Species in Small Forest Openings 22-Year Results

R. L. Johnson, R. M. Krinard
1983 Southern journal of applied forestry  
Small forest openings planted with seven leading commercial tree species were completely dominated by yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) that averaged 90 feet tall after 22 years. Of the other planted species, swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii) was most shade tolerant while Shumard oaks (Q. shumardii), water oaks (Q. nigra), and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) showed little tolerance.
doi:10.1093/sjaf/7.3.153 fatcat:ibhfkgnt7bghbkbxtfid4hfqfi