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Environmental risk assessments can provide high confidence of minimal risk by testing theories, "risk hypotheses", that predict the likelihood of unacceptable harmful events. The creation of risk hypotheses and a plan to test them is called problem formulation. Effective problem formulation seeks to maximize the possibility of detecting effects that indicate potential risk; if such effects are not detected, minimal risk is indicated with high confidence. Two important implications are thatdoi:10.1051/ebr:2007004 pmid:17445509 fatcat:olhcpkiwvbaivdkvwlcgf3t3qi