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This article examines the relationship between energy consumption (EC) and economic growth for South Africa for the period 1971-2009. Most studies examining this relationship do assume that it remains constant through the years; however, the reality might be different since many factors can affect the existence and direction of this causality. This article looks at a bivariate vector autoregressive process and takes into consideration any instability in the model using bootstrap rolling Grangerdoi:10.1080/15567249.2013.843618 fatcat:vzxokjegx5gqfkjk6w7ssop7u4