Challenges in Bone Tissue Regeneration: Stem Cell Therapy, Biofunctionality and Antimicrobial Properties of Novel Materials and Its Evolution
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
An aging population leads to increasing demand for sustained quality of life with the aid of novel implants. Patients expect fast healing and few complications after surgery. Increased biofunctionality and antimicrobial behavior of implants, in combination with supportive stem cell therapy, can meet these expectations. Recent research in the field of bone implants and the implementation of autologous mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of bone defects is outlined and evaluated in this
... uated in this review. The article highlights several advantages, limitations and advances for metal-, ceramic- and polymer-based implants and discusses the future need for high-throughput screening systems used in the evaluation of novel developed materials and stem cell therapies. Automated cell culture systems, microarray assays or microfluidic devices are required to efficiently analyze the increasing number of new materials and stem cell-assisted therapies. Approaches described in the literature to improve biocompatibility, biofunctionality and stem cell differentiation efficiencies of implants range from the design of drug-laden nanoparticles to chemical modification and the selection of materials that mimic the natural tissue. Combining suitable implants with mesenchymal stem cell treatment promises to shorten healing time and increase treatment success. Most research studies focus on creating antibacterial materials or modifying implants with antibacterial coatings in order to address the increasing number of complications after surgeries that are mostly caused by bacterial infections. Moreover, treatment of multiresistant pathogens will pose even bigger challenges in hospitals in the future, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). These antibacterial materials will help to reduce infections after surgery and the number of antibiotic treatments that contribute to the emergence of new multiresistant pathogens, whilst the antibacterial implants will help reduce the amount of antibiotics used in clinical treatment.