Anti-metastatic Effects on B16F10 Melanoma Cells of Extracts and Two Prenylated Xanthones Isolated from Maclura amboinensis Bl. Roots

Pongpun Siripong, Kitiya Rassamee, Suratsawadee Piyaviriyakul, Jantana Yahuafai, Kwanjai Kanokmedhakul
2012 Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention  
Inhibitory effects of Maclura amboinenesis Bl, one plant used traditionally for the treatment of cancers, on metastatic potential of highly metastatic B16F10 melanoma cells were investigated in vitro. Cell proliferation was assessed using the MTT colorimetric assay. Details of metastatic capabilities including invasion, migration and adhesion of B16F10 melanoma cells were examined by Boyden Chamber invasion and migration, scratch motility and cell attachment assays, respectively. The results
more » ... ely. The results demonstrated that n-hexane and chloroform extracts exhibited potent anti-proliferative effects (p<0.01), whereas the methanol and aqueous extracts had less pronounced effects after 24 h exposure. Bioactivity-guided chromatographic fractionation of both active n-hexane and chloroform extracts led to the isolation of two main prenylated xanthones and characterization as macluraxanthone and gerontoxanthone-I, respectively, their structures being identified by comparison with the spectral data. Interestingly, both exhibited potent effective effects. At non-toxic effective doses, n-hexane and chloroform extracts (10 and 30 µg/ml) as well as macluraxanthone and gerontoxanthone-I (3 and 10 µM) significantly inhibited B16F10 cell invasion, to a greater extent than 10 µM doxorubicin, while reducing migration of cancer cells without cellular cytotoxicity. Moreover, exposure of B16F10 melanoma cells to high concentrations of chloroform (30 µg/ml) and geratoxanthone-I (20 µM) for 24 h resulted in delayed adhesion and retarded colonization. As insights into mechanisms of action, typical morphological changes of apoptotic cells e.g. membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, apoptotic bodies and loss of adhesion as well as cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase with increase of sub-G1 cell proportions, detected by Hoechst 33342 staining and flow cytometry were observed, suggesting DNA damage and subsequent apoptotic cell death. Taken together, our findings indicate for the first time that active n-hexane and chloroform extracts as well as macluraxanthone and gerontoxanthone-I isolated from Maclura amboinensis Bl. roots affect multistep of cancer metastasis processes including proliferation, adhesion, invasion and migration, possibly through induction of apoptosis of highly metastatic B16F10 melanoma cells. Based on these data, M. amboinensis Bl. represents a potential candidate novel chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic agent. Additionally, they also support its ethno-medicinal usage for cancer prevention and/or chemotherapy.
doi:10.7314/apjcp.2012.13.7.3519 fatcat:hl3ajr2h6nddpkwbwqyrpmfswm