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2017 Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium - Spring (PIERS)
Commercial airlines began operations over polar routes in 1999 with a small number of proving flights. By 2014 the number had increased to in excess of 12,000 flights per year, and further increases are expected. For safe operations, the aircraft have to be able to communicate with air traffic control centres at all times. This is achieved by VHF links whilst within range of the widespread network of ground stations, and by HF radio in remote areas such as the Polar regions, the North Atlanticdoi:10.1109/piers.2017.8262070 fatcat:3qsyyafnsfcznh7bf6ze6i4qhm