Inhibition of miR-96-5p in the mouse brain increases glutathione levels by altering NOVA1 expression
AbstractGlutathione (GSH) is an important antioxidant that plays a critical role in neuroprotection. GSH depletion in neurons induces oxidative stress and thereby promotes neuronal damage, which in turn is regarded as a hallmark of the early stage of neurodegenerative diseases. The neuronal GSH level is mainly regulated by cysteine transporter EAAC1 and its inhibitor, GTRAP3-18. In this study, we found that the GTRAP3-18 level was increased by up-regulation of the microRNA miR-96-5p, which was
... R-96-5p, which was found to decrease EAAC1 levels in our previous study. Since the 3'-UTR region of GTRAP3-18 lacks the consensus sequence for miR-96-5p, an unidentified protein should be responsible for the intermediate regulation of GTRAP3-18 expression by miR-96-5p. Here, we discovered that RNA-binding protein NOVA1 functions as an intermediate protein for GTRAP3-18 expression via miR-96-5p. Moreover, we show that intra-arterial injection of a miR-96-5p-inhibiting nucleic acid to living mice by a drug delivery system using microbubbles and ultrasound decreased the level of GTRAP3-18 via NOVA1 and increased the levels of EAAC1 and GSH in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. These findings suggest that the delivery of a miR-96-5p inhibitor to the brain would efficiently increase the neuroprotective activity by increasing GSH levels via EAAC1, GTRAP3-18 and NOVA1.